Wolf Up

Wolves are awesome animals. They can been seen on our clothes, our money, and throughout our popular culture.They can come in many colors like red, white, grey, and maybe green. Red wolves (Canis rufus) are critically endangered with about 100 currently living in the wild, the wild being the Albemarle Peninsula of North Carolina, which is the only place where Red wolves exist, and sadly their future doesn’t look that great. White wolves (Canis lupus arctos) are a actually a subspecies of the grey wolf (Canis lupus), and are remarkable creatures. To celebrate the coolness of the wolf, here are a sampling of wolf related links and goodness.

Wolf Conservation and Ecology

Many species of wolves are threatened, but in some areas they are making a comeback, and they are thriving in some unexpected areas, like Chernobyl.

One of the most famous places for wolves is Yellowstone National Park, and one wolf, named 832F, was very famous, unfortunately she was shot and killed by a hunter in 2012.

832F was one of many wolves that had been outfitted with a GPS tracking collar that allowed scientists and the public to track wolf packs, which is pretty cool.

The wolves of Yellowstone were re-introduced in 1995, and the amazing impact that their re-introduction had on the ecosystem is wonderfully described in this video.

Part of the reason wolves get hunted is for conservation and intensive management efforts, and this article does a great job of describing the role wolves play in ecology, and why we sometimes hate and fear the wolf.

This article discuses wolf ecology on Isle Royale, where things are a bit more tricky because of the dynamics of island life. The three conservation options discussed are to conserve Isle Royale’s wolf population by taking new wolves to the island to mitigate inbreeding, an action known as genetic rescue; to reintroduce wolves to the island, if and when they go extinct; or to do nothing, essentially the conservation equivalent of Star Trek’s Prime Directive. The debate is ongoing, but things are not looking good for these wolves.

Preserving wolves takes on a whole new meaning in a series of wolf videos over at The Brain Scoop, made by the Chief Curiosity Correspondent at The Field Museum in Chicago, Emily Graslie. The videos, which are not for the faint of heart or squeamish, show Emily Getting a Wolf, Skinning a Wolf, Gutting a Wolf, Wolf Head CSI Fun Time, and examining the stomach contents of the wolf. Below is the skinning the wolf episode, it is pretty amazing, educational, and little bit gross.

Wolves and Dogs

An interesting evolutionary question, is what separates wolves from dogs? There is a lot of literature looking into this, but here are just a couple of neat articles that look at behavioural differences (Why Wolves are Forever Wild, but Dogs Can be Tamed, and The Difference Between Pet Dogs and Tame Wolves) and the role diet played in the evolution of wolves and dogs (Dogs Adapted to Agriculture, and Research Looks at Starchy Diet’s Role in Dog’s Evolution).

Wolf Howl

Wolves learning to howl. Photo by Debbie DiCarlo

Wolves learning to howl. Photo by Debbie DiCarlo

The howl of the wolf is unmistakable and can be equal parts terrifying and awe-inspiring. Interestingly, wolves use their howl for more than just terrifying us, but also to communicate to friends.

The howl of a wolf is so unique that technology is now allowing experts to identify individual wolves just by their call. You can become one of those experts by taking part in Algonquin Parks Public Wolf Howl, now in its 50th year.

Fun with Wolves

Wolves are all over television, between True Blood, Teen WolfBitten, Doctor Who, Being Human (UK and US), wolves, or rather werewolves, are very hot right now.

For a more education take of wolves, check out the documentary In the Valley of the Wolves.

Or for a more fictional take watch, The Grey, White Fang, or Save the Date*.

Close up of the wolf section of the Taxonomy of Band Names graphic from CBC Music

Close up of the wolf section of the Taxonomy of Band Names graphic from CBC Music

The reason I list Save the Date as a wolf movie, is because the band featured in the movie is called Wolf Bird, and one of the characters has a past time of following wolf-named bands, some of which are listed in this excellent graphic (section of which is seen on the left) by CBC music of the Taxonomy of a Band Name.

Speaking of music, here is a Wolf related playlist, and a playlist of bands that played the excellent Wolfe Island Music Festival in 2013.

If wolf reading is more your speed, Jack London’sWhite Fang is available as a free eBook.

And if the internet is more your thing, wolves are found all around the net, including the Courage Wolf and Insanity Wolf memes, and Buzzfeed has a list of the 17 Least Majestic Wolves (#1 is also used in this image, fully capitalizing on the YoungMe/NowMe trend).

Courage and Insanity Wolf

Courage and Insanity Wolf

Hopefully those links help to show just how cool wolves are, and if they didn’t I offer this picture without comment to convince you. 

Wolf Up

Wolf Up

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Round-Up Ready: Cicada Edition

In a neat coincidence, my Grandma and I were both 12 years old the first time the 17-year periodical cicadas, Magicicada Brood II,  emerged. For her they have since returned 5 times (she is 97!), for me, only once. Below is a quick round up of cicada related links.

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SCOTUS Decision on Bowman v. Monsanto Co.

Today the Supreme Court of the United States ruled on the Bowman v. Monsanto Co. case in favor of Monsanto. The Atlantic described the case as a story about technology and innovation and investment, about legal standards and appellate precedent and statutory intent, about the nature of nature and how the law ought to answer the basic question of who owns the rights to the seeds of planted seeds“.  The case centers around 75 year old* Indiana soybean farmer Vernon Hugh Bowman, and his decision to plant a second crop of soybeans. Below is a brief overview of the case and some of the implications of the verdict.

*(every article about this case needs to point out his age)

Background Information

Obligatory file photo showing a farmer holding Monsanto's Roundup Ready Soybean seeds (AP Photo/Dan Gill, File)

Obligatory file photo showing a farmer holding Monsanto’s Roundup Ready Soybean seeds (AP Photo/Dan Gill, File)

For a thorough and legalese heavy primer on the case, read the summary put together by the Cornell University Law School, here, for a less technical primer, continue reading. Mr. Bowman had originally purchased Monsanto’s Roundup Ready Soybeans and planted them as his main crop in the spring. When a farmer buys seed for planting (genetically engineered or not), that seed usually has a contract associated with it that says that the farmer can not replant the harvested grain, Mr. Bowman signed that standard licensing agreement. Up until this point everything is on the straight and narrow, but then Mr. Bowman decided to plant his second crop of soybeans later that year, but he didn’t want to pay for Monsanto’s seed, instead Mr. Bowman purchased his seeds from a grain elevator, what are commonly called “commodity seeds”. The grain elevator would contain the harvest from local farmers, the majority of whom would have likely used Monsanto’s Roundup Ready soybeans. In their licensing agreement Monsanto authorizes growers to sell second-generation seed to local grain elevators as a commodity, without restricting grain elevators’ subsequent sales of that seed. Biofortified notes that “the natural and foreseeable purpose of commodity soybean grain is for feed, processing into oil and textured vegetable protein, etc – the purpose is to enter the food supply, not to be planted“.

Mr. Bowman planted these commodity seeds, without a licensing agreement, and used Roundup as a weed control on this second crop. In choosing Roundup Mr. Bowman ensured that only soybeans with the resistance trait (i.e., Roundup Ready soybeans) would flourish in the crop. According to The Atlantic, Mr. Bowman repeated this practice from 2000 through 2007, and unlike his first planting, he saved the seeds (those selected by him through his use of Roundup to contain the Roundup Ready trait) from his subsequent harvests and replanted them as additional second-crops in later years.

Enter the Courts

Monsanto filed suit against Mr. Bowman claiming that by not buying seeds for each generation he had infringed upon their patents associated with genetically engineered soybeans, which contain patented biotechnology that enables the plants to tolerate glyphosate, the active ingredient in Roundup. Mr. Bowman contended that Monsanto’s patent rights were exhausted once he bought the seeds and that use of progeny seeds is an expected use of the product. Monsanto responded that in the case of self-replicating technologies the patent extends to the technology, in this case, herbicide resistance, rather than the seed itself.

The Federal Circuit upheld a District Court decision awarding Monsanto $84,456.20 in damages for violation of their patented technology, reasoning that Monsanto’s herbicide resistant technology was covered by patent regardless of whether it was the original seed or a product of the original seeds. The case was taken up by the Supreme Court, where it was argued on February 19, 2013, the full transcript is available here. After the arguments were heard, many news outlets and organizations seemed to think that the decision would once again favor Monsanto, and on May 13, 2013, Justice Kagan delivered the opinion for a unanimous Court ruling in favor of Monsanto. From the opinion:

By planting and harvesting Monsanto’s patented seeds, Bowman made additional copies of Monsanto’s patented invention, and his conduct thus falls outside the protections of patent exhaustion. Were this otherwise, Monsanto’s patent would provide scant benefit.

After inventing the Roundup Ready trait, Monsanto would, to be sure, “receive [its] reward” for the first seeds it sells. But in short order, other seed companies could reproduce the product and market it to growers, thus depriving Monsanto of its monopoly. And farmers themselves need only buy the seed once, whether from Monsanto, a competitor, or (as here) a grain elevator. The grower could multiply his initial purchase, and then multiply that new creation, ad infinitum – each time profiting from the patented seed without compensating its inventor.

Innovation and Investment

This verdict is good news for innovation and investment in technology. If the courts had ruled in favor of Mr. Bowman, there would be little incentive to invest in not just agricultural biotechnology, but also other innovations in computers, medicine, and other technologies. Without protections provided by patent law, anyone could create a virtually limitless supply of patented technology, thereby eliminating the incentive to invest in research and development for fear of not recouping costs. Monsanto invested 13 years and hundreds of millions of dollars into developing herbicide-resistant seeds, and regardless of your personal feelings towards the company, they deserve to recoup and profit from their investment. 

That is not to say that the only reason to invest in research is for profit, as the President of the National Research Council of Canada would have you believe (his actual quote “scientific discovery is not valuable unless it has commercial value“). Quite the contrary, profit is the result of doing research, and should not be the reason to do it, or invest in it. Phil Plait notes that “basic scientific research is a vast endeavor, and some of it will pay off economically, and some won’t. In almost every case, you cannot know in advance which will do which“. Basic scientific research eventually paved the way for Roundup Ready technology, and that investment and foresight, should be rewarded with patent protection. Ensuring protection for investments in innovation and technology through patent law, also ensures that basic scientific research, not just applied, can continue to be funded, and that is a good thing.

Cool Cave Adventures

Caves are cool, they even have their own episode in the Planet Earth series! Even cooler than watching videos about caves though, is trekking through caves with friends. Several years ago I had the chance to explore Lusk Cave in Gatineau Park, part of Canada’s Capital Region, with my friends Justin and Ray.


Standing at one of the entrances to Lusk Cave.

Lusk Cave began being formed 12,500 years ago when glacial melt waters eroded the soluble marble, leaving behind an intricate outcropping of harder rock. The system stretches for about 150 meters, with a maximum depth 10 meters below the surface. These relatively young caves do not have the impressive stalactites and stalagmites that are typically associated with caves, but they still offer some impressive geological formations.

Taking the high and dry path.

Justin and I, taking the high and dry path.

Lusk Caves are particularly known for their keyhole shape; where the upper portion of the tunnels are wide from the initial heavy glacial melt-water flow, and the lower portion of the tunnels are narrow from the slower stream erosion that is ongoing. Depending on the season, a significant portion of the cave system may be underwater, which can create some exciting (and wet) challenges when making your way through the system. During our trek through Lusk Cave, we largely made it through without getting wet, often taking a difficult high path to avoid the rushing, cold waters below. The immense enjoyment of that small caving trip sparked off a desire to visit more, and larger caves. Enter: Mammoth Cave, KY.

Ray and I planned a stop at Mammoth Cave, Kentucky on our trip to Bonnaroo. Mammoth Cave lives up to its name, it is the world’s longest known cave system, with more than 400 miles (643 km) having been explored, with more still being discovered, like these 10 extra miles that were recently discovered. Because of is size, historical, scientific, and cultural importance, Mammoth Cave is a National Park, and has been named a UNESCO World Heritage Site. UNESCO notes that “the park illustrates a number of stages of the Earth’s evolutionary history and contains ongoing geological processes and unique wildlife. It is renowned for its size and vast network of extremely large horizontal passages and vertical shafts. Nearly every type of cave formation known is within the site, the product of karst topography. The flora and fauna of Mammoth Cave is the richest cave-dwelling wildlife known, with more than 130 species within the cave system“. The  importance of Mammoth Cave can been further seen if you look at its impact on the scientific community. Using Google Scholar I created an author profile for Mammoth Cave, and estimated that 2,980 scholarly articles have been written that have a connection to Mammoth Cave. Those articles have been cited 60,437 times, and date back to the 1850’s, which is pretty cool.

Ray, suited up and ready to go

Ray, suited up and ready to go

On our trip to Mammoth Cave, we took the Wild Cave Tour. But before we could proceed with the tour we needed to suit up. We strip off our outside clothes and don outerwear (gloves, coveralls, helmet) that has been provided by the Park Service, and our boots (self provided) undergo stringent disinfection procedures. These precautions are to minimize the spread of White Nose Syndrome, which is a fungus that is decimating bat populations across the Eastern United States and Canada. Unfortunately, it seems as though these precautions may have just slowed down the spread, as this January the first bats with White Nose Syndrome were discovered at Mammoth Cave.

Once we got on the appropriate attire we began our trek through a small 9.6 km portion of Mammoth Cave. It was a 6 hour long trek that involved climbing, crawling (some passages as tight as 9 inches), and squeezing through narrow tunnels (chest or hip size larger than 42 inches will not fit through crawl spaces), all while battling any fear of heights or claustrophobia.


Entering a very narrow tunnel…

...emerging from the tunnel

…emerging from the tunnel, claustrophobia defeated.

A bandanna for completing the trek,  listing some of the names of some of the caves and passages we crawled through

For completing the trek, we got bandannas listing the names of some of the caves, rooms, and passages we crawled through, highlights included the Star Trek Room, The Shotgun, Cheese Grater, and Castration Rock.

My palms get clammy and my heart picks up a couple beats just writing about the whole experience. It was a thrilling and awe inspiring adventure that will certainly not be forgotten, or the last.

Adventure awaits

Adventure awaits

Cooking the Tree

This post is a little late (and short), but here none the less.

Shortly after Christmas I came across a post on Well Preserved titled Eating the Christmas Tree… Christmas Tree (Fir) Brined Pork Tenderloin and decided to try out that recipe with our tree needles. The preparation was really easy, and the end result was very delicious.

Ingredients for making a Christmas tree brined pork tenderloin

Ingredients for making a Christmas tree brined pork tenderloin

It turns out that there are lots of ways to cook with Christmas trees. The New York Times ran an article titled Evergreen, Ever Delicious which offered “inspired” recipes for spruce butter, oil, and vinegar. More adventurous recipes out there include these delicious looking roast potatoes, spruce duck, pine smoked mussels, and spruce tip shortbread cookies. The needles can also be innovatively used for toppings, such as a gremolata or a powder. And what better way to use the leftover Christmas tree then to make some holiday drinks, like beer as seen on Spruce on Tap, or gin, or tea. Taking the Christmas tree beyond decoration and bringing it to the plate, or mug, is very cool, and a neat reminder of the edible parts of nature that we might take for granted.

Check out the links below for other uses for spent Christmas trees.

Coasters made from a tree trunk, another great way to use up your spent Christmas tree.

Enjoying a beer (not a spruce beer) on coasters made from a spent Christmas tree trunk.

SETAC Presentations on the Canadian Oil Sands

  1. The 33rd Annual Meeting of the North American Chapter of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) is currently underway in Long Beach, California. I wasn’t able to attend SETAC this year, but fortunately for me Naomi Lubick has been tweeting some of the highlights from the conference,
  2. nlubick
    Infrastructure for sewage and wastewater treatment is aging, and could end up making things worse if ignored: leaking poop! #sfei #setac2012

    Mon, Nov 12 2012 10:42:38
  3. nlubick
    Cesium 137 radiation: twice as much from food in Chiba prefecture vs Fukushima city. Air delivered more Cs-137 in the city. #setac2012

    Tue, Nov 13 2012 15:16:20
  4. nlubick
    Hideshige Takada, plastic pellets expert: flame retardants go from plastics into shearwater seabirds in the middle of the Pacific #setac2012

    Wed, Nov 14 2012 09:05:41
  5. But it has been one session that she tweeted about, which revolves around The Canadian Oil Sands, that has been getting quite a bit of attention.
  6. nlubick
    #EnvironmentCanada confirms levels from David Schindler’s lab’s PNAS ppr: #TarSands pollutants in snow near #oilsands operations. #setac2012

    Wed, Nov 14 2012 10:49:54
  7. The paper that she is referring was authored by Erin Kelly (can be found here), examined the concentrations of priority pollutants (Sb, As, Be, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Hg, Ni, Se, Ag, Tl, and Zn) in snowpack and water from the areas surrounding the Alberta oil sands development. One of the main findings of their paper was that within 50 km of upgrading facilities, 11 400 metric tons of airborne particulates were deposited during 4 months of snowfall. The majority of those particulates consisted of oil sands bitumen, some priority pollutants and polyaromatic compounds, and the particulate elements decline in concentration more rapidly with distance from development, than do those dissolved elements. The study by Kelly et al. got lots of attention and resulted in a press conference where David Schindler waved around a fish found in the Athabasca River which was deformed and had tumors. He attributed the deformities in the fish to the oil sands operations in Fort McMurray, and warned of potential health effects for members of the surrounding communities. Largely as a result of the work of Kelly and Schindler, Environment Canada began an intensive monitoring campaign in the area. The results of their studies are now being shared.
  8. CBCQuirks
    Federal scientists uncover evidence that oilsands contaminants travel further than expected http://www.montrealgazette.com/news/national/Federal scientists uncover evidence that oilsands/7542747/story.html

    Wed, Nov 14 2012 07:19:11
  9. This is referring to the work of Jane Kirk et al. of Environment Canada, whose findings confirmed those of Kelly et al., but also found that the loadings extended further than previously reported. Kirk et al. collected snowpack samples from ~90 sites located 0-200 km from the major bitumen upgrading facilities to determine the atmospheric contaminant loadings into the Athabasca River. They found all 13 of the priority pollutants that Kelly et al. looked at, and noted that the loadings were 1.5 to 13 times greater at sites within 50 km of the upgraders, compared to those sites that were further than 50 km away. They also noted that particulate bound methyl mercury (MeHg) increased exponentially with proximity to the upgraders. The presence and concentration of MeHg is troubling as it is a very bioaccumulative substance that is also quite toxic.
  10. ecojustice_ca
    Snow near oilsands contains toxic substances, CBC reports. http://www.cbc.ca/video/watch/News/Canada/Calgary/ID=2304420832 #oilsands Please ReTweet

    Wed, Nov 14 2012 06:21:12
  11. A related study, presented by Derek Muir (Environment Canada), found that concentrations of total PAHs in lake sediments surrounding the oil sands development were 2.5 to 23 times greater than there were pre-1960 background levels. Muir commented that the footprint of deposition is potentially larger than anticipated, and that the rising levels of PAHs in sediments seems to parallel the development of the oil sands industry.
  12. EcoRational
    Hey #Alberta: Lakes & food chain full of PAHs & mercury. Is this to be your legacy? http://bit.ly/QdHHpA #SETAC #abpoli #tarsands #oilsands

    Wed, Nov 14 2012 09:25:48
  13. BCLaraby
    Defunding in 3,2,1: Fed scientists uncover evidence that oilsands contaminants travel further than expected http://www.calgaryherald.com/life/Federal scientists uncover evidence that oilsands contaminants/7542920/story.html #cdnpoli

    Wed, Nov 14 2012 11:32:02
  14. But it is worth noting that the concentrations of the PAHs in the lake sediments (with the exception of the lake closest to the oil sands development) are below guideline limits, in fact, they are similar to concentrations observed around urban areas. These concentrations are are not yet great enough that they are considered toxic to aquatic life.
  15. nlubick
    Still relatively low concentrations of PAHs from oil operations. #TarSands #EnvironmentCanada #setac2012

    Wed, Nov 14 2012 11:52:55
  16. Interestingly, results presented by Joanne Parrott (Environment Canada), found that melted snow (amended with essential salts to mimic the ionic composition of the Athabasca River) from near the oil sands mining and refining areas were toxic to larval fathead minnows from 25 to 100% strength.
  17. nlubick
    “The snow was toxic” to fathead minnow larvae near stacks but clean far away. What happens to melt? #EnvironmentCanada #TarSands #setac2012

    Wed, Nov 14 2012 10:53:51
  18. However, once the snow melt water was diluted with water from the Athabasca River it was no longer toxic to the minnows.
  19. nlubick
    Dilution is the solution? Athabasca River water is “NOT TOXIC” (#EnvironmentCanada emphasis). Meltwater is ok for fish #setac2012 #TarSands

    Wed, Nov 14 2012 10:56:22
  20. These results are being presented at a conference and I am largely gathering information about the work being presented through the SETAC Abstract book and the tweets and updates from colleagues. This is by no means the ideal way of getting information, but it does represent how most people would be exposed to science news, and while it is cool that it is happening, it is still lacking. Reading a full peer reviewed paper gives much more information and a more complete story to help interpret the results. Unfortunately, that format is largely unavailable to the public (both as it is written and physically as a paper), and as such we have to rely on newspaper articles and press releases which are often incomplete and can be misleading. Hopefully once the results presented at the SETAC conference get published, there will be a renewed discussion of their significance and they will help inform the future development of the Canadian oil sands.

A Pain in the Ash Tree

A downed 101-foot red oak, thought to be around 200 years old

Hurricane Sandy left a wide path of destruction throughout New York and New Jersey, and one area that was uniquely damaged by the storm, was the New York Botanical Gardens. Over one hundred native trees, including some ancient oaks (like the one pictured left) were destroyed by the storm (see Why Do Trees Topple in a Storm). Trees falling in the woods are a natural part of the forest life cycle, a downed tree will provide habitat for animals, return nutrients to the ground, and the light that can now penetrate the canopy will allow for new growth to occur. While it is sad to see trees destroyed, (especially when there is malicious intent, or by accident – read this account of the accidental death of a 5,000 year old tree, it took root only a few hundred years after human history was first recorded!!), it is comforting to know that this is part of the natural process. But how about when a tree is under attack by a pest or disease (10 common tree diseases), sure it may be a natural process, but is that of any comfort?

Recently, the UK has been waging a war against the tree fungus Chalara fraxinea, which has decimated ash tree species throughout northern Europe – affecting more than 90% of ash trees in Denmark and Sweden. Once infected with Chalara, the ash tree exhibits symptoms that include leaf loss and crown dieback in affected trees, and it can lead to tree death.

The BBC reports that Chalara dieback of ash has been listed as a quarantine pathogen under national emergency measure. The types of emergency measures to be implemented are similar to those used to tackle the spread of animal diseases like foot and mouth or bird flu. Currently there is no chemical control for this fungus, the only control is for infected trees to be felled and burned; so far, more than 100,000 ash trees have already been destroyed in England and Scotland. By burning these trees, forestry officials are hoping to slow the spread of the fungus, however this management practice has been criticized. Conservationists note that 80 common insects, at least 60 of the rarest insect species in the UK have an association with ash trees (ironically, many of those insects depend on the dead and rotting form of the ash tree), and that the ash tree provides many other services, from habitat for birds, substrate for lichens and mosses which grow in its bark, to food in the form of seeds for small mammals. By burning these infected trees, these functions are removed, and the rotting timber is no longer able to provide habitat or nutrients. Others agree, noting that simply chopping and burning is not only a futile management strategy (Chalara spores can travel more than 30 km in the wind), but highly disruptive and unnecessary. They maintain that the most effective strategy for dealing with this epidemic is time.

If the spread of ash dieback can be slowed (through measures such as banning the import of ash trees and the movement of trees around the country), and its impact minimized (through management programs that do not included chop and burn), there is hope that scientists can find trees with a genetic resistance to the disease. In Denmark, where ash dieback severely decimated the population, between 1 and 2% of ash trees are showing signs of immunity from the disease. Once resistant trees are found, they can be cultivated and used as new stock for nurseries. One of the keys to finding a resistant ash, will be the engagement of the public and their help in surveying diseased and healthy ash trees, fortunately there is an app for that.

The underlying question is how best manage this outbreak. Is this just a natural process and cycle that should be allowed to continue, until nature balances itself out with resistant forms of ash slowly emerging, and other species dependent on the ash learning or failing to adapt along the way? Or has the introduction of this disease by man warranted active management practices, such as chop and burn? Like most things, the answer isn’t so clear cut (sorry of the pun), and requires a management practice that is a balance of both strategies.

For a unique perspective on dealing with pest infected trees, check out Core77’s  series on the Blue Pine Beetle disaster. Part 1: A Raw Materials Nightmare: The Blue Pine Disaster, part 2: What is BKP (Beetle Kill Pine) Good For?, part 3: What Will the Future Bring for BKP? Canadian Innovation FTW, and part 4: How Can You Help as an Individual?

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